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美国网友问:为什么美国军费这么高?用到医疗教育上不好吗?

美国白宫正式对外公布2023财年国防预算,达到令人咋舌的8133亿美元,创下历史最高纪录。受如此大规模军费开支的刺激,可以预见,美对全球的军事干预活动将更加活跃和猖獗。可美国的军费如此之高,是怎么花出去的呢?在美版知乎Quora上,美国网友提问道:为什么美国军费这么高?用到医疗教育上不好吗?这引起各国专家网友的围观和热议,我们来看看美国军方利益代表是如何狡辩的。

美国网友问:为什么美国军费这么高?用到医疗教育上不好吗?

问题

美国网友问:为什么美国军费这么高?用到医疗教育上不好吗?

美国军方专家克里斯•沃特森的回答

The military strength of the United States is obviously unparalleled. The military expenditure of the United States alone exceeds that of the next 14 countries.

美国的军事力量显然是无与伦比的,仅美国一国的军费开支就超过了排名紧随其后的14个国家。

In 2020, the US military budget will exceed $700 billion. Its closest target is China, with a budget of $220 billion. Followed by Russia, with $87 billion.

2020年,美国的军事预算超过7000亿美元。它最接近的目标是预算为2200亿美元的中国。其次是俄罗斯,拥有870亿美元。

The most incredible thing is that since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, military spending has been growing steadily. It is necessary for Americans to intervene in the internal affairs of other countries and become the world police, which is the price they must pay.

最令人难以置信的是,自苏联解体以来,军费开支一直在稳步增长,四处干预其他国家的内政,成为世界警察对美国人来说是必要的,这是他们必须要为之付出的代价。

An interesting fact is that about 40% of the budget is overspent every year. Americans don't know whose coffers they go to, congressmen or military capitalists? There's no way to verify it anyway. It may have evaporated out of thin air.

一个有趣的事实是,每年有大约40%的预算超支了,美国人不知道流向了谁的小金库,国会议员还是军工资本家?反正也没办法验证,可能是凭空蒸发了。

The United States has the most advanced equipment and a total of 1.3 million troops. Together with reservists, we have more than 2.1 million people at our disposal. Together with Russia, the United States is still the country with the most nuclear warheads so far.

美国拥有最先进的装备和总计130万人的军队,连同预备役军人,我们有210多万人可供支配,与俄罗斯一起,美国仍然是迄今为止拥有最多核弹头的国家。

美国网友问:为什么美国军费这么高?用到医疗教育上不好吗?

The United States has the largest fleet of nuclear submarines, with 14 nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines, 4 Nuclear Powered cruise missile submarines and 55 nuclear attack submarines, accounting for 73 (50%) of the 144 nuclear submarines in the world.

美国拥有最大规模的核潜艇舰队,拥有14艘核动力弹道导弹潜艇、4艘核动力巡航导弹潜艇和55艘核攻击潜艇,占全球144艘核潜艇中的73艘(50%)。

In terms of the number of aircraft carriers in service, the United States is also far ahead, with 11 in early 2020, supported by more than 800 military bases around the world. This gives this country incredible power projection capabilities, such as our past deployment in Afghanistan.

在服役的航空母舰数量方面,美国也遥遥领先,2020年初有11艘,背后支撑它的是分布在世界各地的800多个军事基地。这让这个国家拥有难以置信的力量投射能力,比如我们过去在阿富汗的部署。

In addition to this military force, we must also increase huge surveillance capabilities with the NSA and top intelligence agencies with the CIA.

除了这一军事力量,我们还必须与NSA一起增加巨大的监视能力,并与CIA一起增加顶级情报机构。

Every year, the global firepower website will publish the ranking of the countries with the strongest military strength according to 55 standards, which is divided into 8 indicators:

每年,全球火力网站都会根据55个标准发布军事实力最强国家的排名,分为8大项指标:

• human resources (total population, active force, reserve force, population, etc.)

•人力资源(总人口、现役部队、预备役部队、人口等)

• weapons deployed on land (tanks, artillery, surface to surface missiles, etc.)

•部署在陆地上的武器(坦克、火炮、地对地导弹等)

• naval forces (aircraft carriers, destroyers, submarines, frigates, patrol boats, etc.)

•海军力量(航空母舰、驱逐舰、潜艇、护卫舰、巡逻艇等)

• air force (fleet, helicopter, reconnaissance aircraft, etc.)

•空军(机队、直升机、侦察机等)

• natural resources (oil production, hydrocarbon reserves, fuel supply to the armed forces, etc.)

•自然资源(石油产量、碳氢化合物储量、武装部队的燃料供应等)

• military resources (military and civilian personnel, etc.)

•军事资源(军事和文职人员等)

• logistics infrastructure (ports, transport networks, airports, etc.)

•物流基础设施(港口、运输网络、机场等)

• financial status (defense budget, foreign debt, foreign exchange reserves, etc.)

•财务状况(国防预算、外债、外汇储备等)

• its geographical assets (surface area, waterways, coastlines, etc.)

•其地理资产(地表面积、水道、海岸线等)

Not surprisingly, the United States leads this ranking by a large gap every year. It can be seen that except for the last item, each part needs huge expenditure.

不出所料,美国每年都以很大的差距领先这一排名,可以看到,除了最后一项,每部分都需要巨额的支出。

If the United States reduces its military budget from $700 billion to $0, what will happen to the international situation? Will we be invaded?

如果美国将其军事预算从7000亿美元减少到0美元,国际局势会有怎样的变化?我们会被入侵吗?

First, the stock market will collapse immediately, and soon thereafter, the United States will fall into recession, during which at least 1 million jobs may be lost, and military cuts may have an incalculable impact on the economy. Depending on the extent of the recession, the US short-term deficit may decrease significantly.

首先,股市马上就会崩溃,此后不久,美国将陷入衰退,在此期间可能至少会失去100万个工作岗位,军事削减可能会对经济产生难以估计的影响。根据经济衰退的程度,美国的短期赤字可能会显著减少。

In the long run, the standard of living in the United States may improve as the economy shifts from the military sector to other sectors.

从长远来看,美国的生活水平可能会因为经济从军事部门转向其他部门而提高。

Globally, I expect to see years of increased instability. Without 12 nuclear powered aircraft carriers and other US navies patrolling international waters, international trade is likely to be hit. Our influence in the world will be reduced, and terrorists and anti American forces will become more aggressive.

在全球范围内,我预计会看到多年的不稳定因素加剧。如果没有12艘核动力航空母舰和其他美国海军在国际水域巡逻,国际贸易很可能会受到打击。我们在世界范围内的影响力将会缩小,恐怖分子和反美势力会变得更加咄咄逼人。

美国网友问:为什么美国军费这么高?用到医疗教育上不好吗?

I doubt we will be invaded. Canada and Mexico may not have this tendency now. Who knows in the future? We are thousands of miles away from other countries, but this distance is not a problem under the temptation of the abundant resources of the United States and the support of the air force and navy.

我怀疑我们会被入侵,加拿大和墨西哥现在可能没有这种倾向,谁知道以后呢?我们与其他国家相隔数千英里,但在美国充沛的资源诱惑下和空军及海军力量的加持下这点距离并不成问题。

Looking at the total US government expenditure, you will notice:

看看美国政府支出总额,你会注意到:

-We spend more on education than on defense (15% versus 12%)

-我们在教育上的支出超过了国防支出(15%对12%)

-We spend more on health care than on defense (22% vs 12% - almost double!)

-我们在医疗保健上的支出超过了国防支出(22%比12%——几乎翻了一番!)

-We spend more on pensions (mainly social security) than on defense (19% versus 12%).

-我们在养老金(主要是社会保障)上的支出高于国防支出(19%对12%)。

Welfare (6%) + Education (15%) + medical care (22%) + pension (19%) = 62%. Defense = 12%, although defense expenditure is part of the equation, it is certainly not the main reason for our financial difficulties.

福利(6%)+教育(15%)+医疗(22%)+养老金(19%)=62%。国防=12%,虽然国防支出是等式的一部分,但它肯定不是我们财政困境的主要原因。


美国网友问:为什么美国军费这么高?用到医疗教育上不好吗?

德国网友哈珀尔的回答,她受雇于政府部门

Why does the United States (with a defense budget of $612 billion) spend more on the military than the next ten countries with the highest spending combined?

为什么美国(国防预算为6120亿美元)在军事上的支出超过了下十个支出最高的国家的总和?

There are many parts of the military budget. In addition to this year's expenditure plan, the military is also formulating expenditure plans for the next 15 years or more. Ships costing tens of billions of dollars are already in the "construction" stage, and no one knows what the price of fuel, transportation and combat consumption may be in the future.

军事预算有很多部分。除了本年度的支出计划外,军方还在制定未来15年或更长时间的支出计划。耗资数百亿美元的舰船已经处于“建造”阶段,没有人知道未来燃料、运输和战斗消耗的价格可能会是多少。

Everyone is shocked by President Trump's $700 billion defense budget request, but no one remembers that Obama's military budget exceeded $855 billion, and what you see is only the "tip of the iceberg".

所有人都对特朗普总统7000亿美元的国防预算要求感到震惊,但没有人记得当年奥巴马的军事预算超过8550亿美元,而且你看到的都只是“冰山一角”。

So what are all the costs? As mentioned above, there is too much to explain. Personnel, equipment, maintenance parts, vehicles - from recruitment and recruitment to the latest aircraft carrier ($37 billion) and $75 million of on-board personnel (wages), transportation, construction, new overseas bases, fuel, recruitment, training, advertising ($2000 per billboard per month), etc.

那么所有的成本是什么呢?如上所述,要解释的东西太多了。人员、设备、维修零件、车辆——包括从招聘入伍的宣发到最新的航空母舰(370亿美元)以及7500万美元的机上人员(工资)、运输、建筑、新的海外基地、燃料、招聘、培训、广告(每个广告牌每月2000美元)等等。

Each service will submit its own application based on the known and projected costs of the next fiscal year, and there are various urgent needs along the way. All these must be covered, and everything has costs, up to the last screw, bolt, nail, swab and bucket.

各军种会根据下一财年的已知和预测费用提交各自的申请,一路上也有各种紧急需求,所有这些都必须涵盖在内,一切都有成本,一直到最后一颗螺丝钉、螺栓、钉子、拭子和水桶。

In fact, we'd better explain it from the following perspectives:

其实我们最好从以下视角进行解释:

1. High wages: the budget of the United States is five times that of China. However, the average monthly income of PLA soldiers is only 812 US] yuan. The income of US soldiers is more than five times that of this figure. The wages of some of the world's largest armies - Russia, China and India are very low.

1.高工资:美国的预算是中国的5倍,然而,解放军士兵的平均月收入只有812美]元,美军士兵的收入是这个数字的5倍以上,世界上一些最大的军队——俄罗斯、中国和印度等国的工资水平很低。

2. Ally protection: the United States "sells" security services to countries around the world. For example, the commitment of the United States to ensure that Saudi Arabia is free from attacks by Iran, Iraq, Syria and other countries requires a lot of money. In return, Saudi Arabia spent $100 billion to buy services from American contractors, manufacturers and defense equipment manufacturers.

2.盟友保护:美国向世界各国“出售”安全服务。例如,美国确保沙特阿拉伯免于受到伊朗、伊拉克、叙利亚等国袭击的承诺,这需要大量资金,作为回报,沙特阿拉伯花费1000亿美元从美国承包商、制造商和国防设备制造商那里购买服务。

In the 1980s, the United States required Japan to accept the Plaza Accord on the condition of arming Japan, so that Japan could realize its economic vision through hidden military threats. The U.S. government spent billions of dollars on its allies in exchange for these economic concessions.

在20世纪80年代,美国以武装日本为条件要求日方接受广场协议,从而让日本能够通过隐藏的军事威胁实现其经济愿景,美国政府在盟友身上花费数十亿美元,以换取这些经济让步。

3. Reduce casualties in the war by developing high-end technologies: it can be said that the U.S. military pays more attention to the lives of its personnel than its counterparts in Russia, India or Turkey. In order to reduce casualties, a lot of funds have been invested in technology, and casualties have been decreasing in the war participated by the United States.

3.通过研发高端的技术减少战争中的伤亡:可以说,与俄罗斯、印度或土耳其的同行相比,美国军方更重视其人员的生命。为了减少人员伤亡,在技术上投入了大量资金,在美国参与的战争中,人员伤亡一直在减少。

美国网友问:为什么美国军费这么高?用到医疗教育上不好吗?

4. R & D cost: my previous university was closely related to American national defense. All my professors are funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States, and the military system has brought top robots to our robot class. They spent a lot of money to make these expensive toys.

4.研发成本:我之前的大学与美国国防紧密相关。我所有的教授都有美国国防高级研究计划局的资助,军队的建制也曾把顶尖的机器人带到我们的机器人课上。他们花了一大笔钱来制造这些昂贵的玩具。

The United States hopes to maintain its advanced and strong defensive advantages in the foreseeable future, and of course, research is also very expensive. If you are satisfied with using 20-year-old Technology (like many other countries), the cost may be greatly reduced. Research and development costs also help science laboratories and universities bring unexpected effects to the overall economy. For example, computers and the Internet come from national defense research.

美国希望在可预见的未来保持其武器的先进性和强大的防御优势,当然,研究也非常昂贵。如果你对使用已有20年历史的技术感到满意(就像许多其他国家一样),那么成本可能会大大降低。研发成本也有助于科学实验室和大学为整体经济带来意想不到的作用,例如,计算机和互联网都来自国防研究。

5. Military industrial complex: national defense is not only an important part of the US economy, but also the core part of the global weapons economy. The United States has invested a lot of money in military equipment and increased its military budget.

5.军工综合体:国防是美国经济的重要组成部分,也是全球武器经济的核心部分。因此,美国在武器研究上投入了大量资金(提高了国防预算),并投入了大量军事装备来展示其实力,而且回报丰厚。

U.S. arms exports account for 40% of the global arms trade, and part of the R & D costs of U.S. military manufacturing are recovered through these sales, which has also created millions of jobs for the economy.

美国武器出口占全球武器贸易的40%,美国军方制造的研发成本的一部分是通过这些销售收回的,这也为经济创造了数以百万计的就业机会。

6. Waging war everywhere: the American people believe that fighting against "tyranny" that hinders their interests anywhere in the world is the premise of their hegemony, which will only be fueled by their domestic media.

6.四处发动战争:美国人民认为在世界任何地方与妨碍其利益的“暴政”作斗争是他们的保持霸权的前提,他们的国内媒体对此只会推波助澜。

For example, in the five years before 2003, I saw dozens of articles on the "atrocities" of Saddam's regime in reader's Digest, which talked about how Christians in Iraq suffered, how activists were executed and so on.

例如,在2003年之前的5年里,我在《读者文摘》(Reader’s Digest,一本相当没有争议的杂志)上看到了几十篇关于萨达姆政权“暴行”的文章,它谈到了伊拉克的基督徒如何受苦,活动人士如何被处决等等。

But when the war began, the media simply copied any information provided by the Pentagon without any independent critical analysis. But later, the white house soon realized its limitations in the Middle East and North Africa, but at this time, most American leaders were coerced by public opinion and interest groups and would only launch a war, no matter how likely the war was, just because American voters continued to vote for the war.

可当战争开始后,媒体只是照搬五角大楼提供的任何信息,而没有进行任何独立的批判性分析。但后来白宫很快意识到自己在中东和北非的局限性,但这时大多数美国领导人被民意和利益集团裹挟只会发动战争,不管战争有多大胜算,只是因为美国选民继续投票支持战争。

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